ECMA-402

3rd Edition / June 2016

ECMAScript® 2016 Internationalization API Specification

Introduction#

The ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification (ECMA-402 3rd Edition), provides key languagesensitive functionality as a complement to the ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification (ECMA-262 7th Edition or successor). Its functionality has been selected from that of well-established internationalization APIs such as those of the Internationalization Components for Unicode (ICU) library, of the .NET framework, or of the Java platform.

This ECMAScript specification is the first edition released under Ecma TC39's new yearly release cadence and open development process. A plain-text source document was built from the previous edition source document to serve as the base for further development entirely on GitHub. Over the year of this standard's development, dozens of pull requests and issues were filed representing numerous bug fixes, editorial fixes and other improvements. Additionally, numerous software tools were developed to aid in this effort including Ecmarkup, Ecmarkdown, and Grammarkdown. This specification adds a new method to Intl called getCanonicalLocales.

The 1st Edition API was developed by an ad-hoc group established by Ecma TC39 in September 2010 based on a proposal by Nebojša Ćirić and Jungshik Shin.

Internationalization of software is never complete. We expect significant enhancements in future editions of this specification.

1Scope#

This Standard defines the application programming interface for ECMAScript objects that support programs that need to adapt to the linguistic and cultural conventions used by different human languages and countries.

2Conformance#

A conforming implementation of the ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification must conform to the ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification (ECMA-262 7th Edition, or successor), and must provide and support all the objects, properties, functions, and program semantics described in this specification.

A conforming implementation of the ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification is permitted to provide additional objects, properties, and functions beyond those described in this specification. In particular, a conforming implementation of the ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification is permitted to provide properties not described in this specification, and values for those properties, for objects that are described in this specification. A conforming implementation is not permitted to add optional arguments to the functions defined in this specification.

A conforming implementation is permitted to accept additional values, and then have implementation-defined behaviour instead of throwing a RangeError, for the following properties of options arguments:

3Normative References#

The following referenced documents are required for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification (ECMA-262 7th Edition, or successor).
http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm

Note Throughout this document, the phrase "ES2016, x" (where x is a sequence of numbers separated by periods) may be used as shorthand for "ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification (ECMA-262 7th Edition, sub clause x)".

4Overview#

This section contains a non-normative overview of the ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification.

4.1Internationalization, Localization, and Globalization#

Internationalization of software means designing it such that it supports or can be easily adapted to support the needs of users speaking different languages and having different cultural expectations, and enables worldwide communication between them. Localization then is the actual adaptation to a specific language and culture. Globalization of software is commonly understood to be the combination of internationalization and localization. Globalization starts at the lowest level by using a text representation that supports all languages in the world, and using standard identifiers to identify languages, countries, time zones, and other relevant parameters. It continues with using a user interface language and data presentation that the user understands, and finally often requires product-specific adaptations to the user’s language, culture, and environment.

The ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification lays the foundation by using Unicode for text representation and by providing a few language-sensitive functions, but gives applications little control over the behaviour of these functions. The ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification builds on this by providing a set of customizable language-sensitive functionality. The API is useful even for applications that themselves are not internationalized, as even applications targeting only one language and one region need to properly support that one language and region. However, the API also enables applications that support multiple languages and regions, even concurrently, as may be needed in server environments.

4.2API Overview#

The ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification is designed to complement the ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification by providing key language-sensitive functionality. The API can be added to an implementation of the ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification (ECMA-262 7th Edition, or successor).

The ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification provides several key pieces of language-sensitive functionality that are required in most applications: String comparison (collation), number formatting, date and time formatting, and case conversion. While the ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification provides functions for this basic functionality (on Array.prototype: toLocaleString; on String.prototype: localeCompare, toLocaleLowerCase, toLocaleUpperCase; on Number.prototype: toLocaleString; on Date.prototype: toLocaleString, toLocaleDateString, and toLocaleTimeString), it leaves the actual behaviour of these functions largely up to implementations to define. The ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification provides additional functionality, control over the language and over details of the behaviour to be used, and a more complete specification of required functionality.

Applications can use the API in two ways:

  1. Directly, by using the constructors Intl.Collator, Intl.NumberFormat, or Intl.DateTimeFormat to construct an object, specifying a list of preferred languages and options to configure the behaviour of the resulting object. The object then provides a main function (compare or format), which can be called repeatedly. It also provides a resolvedOptions function, which the application can use to find out the exact configuration of the object.
  2. Indirectly, by using the functions of the ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification mentioned above. The collation and formatting functions are respecified in this specification to accept the same arguments as the Collator, NumberFormat, and DateTimeFormat constructors and produce the same results as their compare or format methods. The case conversion functions are respecified to accept a list of preferred languages.

The Intl object is used to package all functionality defined in the ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification to avoid name collisions.

4.3Implementation Dependencies#

Due to the nature of internationalization, the API specification has to leave several details implementation dependent:

  • The set of locales that an implementation supports with adequate localizations: Linguists estimate the number of human languages to around 6000, and the more widely spoken ones have variations based on regions or other parameters. Even large locale data collections, such as the Common Locale Data Repository, cover only a subset of this large set. Implementations targeting resource-constrained devices may have to further reduce the subset.
  • The exact form of localizations such as format patterns: In many cases locale-dependent conventions are not standardized, so different forms may exist side by side, or they vary over time. Different internationalization libraries may have implemented different forms, without any of them being actually wrong. In order to allow this API to be implemented on top of existing libraries, such variations have to be permitted.
  • Subsets of Unicode: Some operations, such as collation, operate on strings that can include characters from the entire Unicode character set. However, both the Unicode standard and the ECMAScript standard allow implementations to limit their functionality to subsets of the Unicode character set. In addition, locale conventions typically don’t specify the desired behaviour for the entire Unicode character set, but only for those characters that are relevant for the locale. While the Unicode Collation Algorithm combines a default collation order for the entire Unicode character set with the ability to tailor for local conventions, subsets and tailorings still result in differences in behaviour.

5Notational Conventions#

This standard uses a subset of the notational conventions of the ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification (ECMA-262 7th Edition), as ES2016:

Note As described in the ECMAScript Language Specification, algorithms are used to precisely specify the required semantics of ECMAScript constructs, but are not intended to imply the use of any specific implementation technique. Internal slots are used to define the semantics of object values, but are not part of the API. They are defined purely for expository purposes. An implementation of the API must behave as if it produced and operated upon internal slots in the manner described here.

As an extension to the Record Specification Type, the notation "[[<name>]]" denotes a field whose name is given by the variable name, which must have a String value. For example, if a variable s has the value "a", then [[<s>]] denotes the field [[<a>]].

For ECMAScript objects, this standard may use variable-named internal slots: The notation "[[<name>]]" denotes an internal slot whose name is given by the variable name, which must have a String value. For example, if a variable s has the value "a", then [[<s>]] denotes the [[<a>]] internal slot.

5.1Well-Known Intrinsic Objects#

The following table extends the Well-Known Intrinsic Objects table defined in ES2016, 5.1.

Table 7  — Well-known Intrinsic Objects (Extensions)
Intrinsic Name Global Name ECMAScript Language Association
%Date_now% "Date.now" The initial value of the "now" data property of the intrinsic %Date% (ES2016, 20.3.3.1)
%Intl% "Intl" The Intl object (8).
%Collator% "Intl.Collator" The Intl.Collator constructor (10.1)
%CollatorPrototype% "Intl.Collator.prototype" The initial value of the "prototype" data property of the intrinsic %Collator% (10.2.1).
%NumberFormat% "Intl.NumberFormat" The Intl.NumberFormat constructor (11.2)
%NumberFormatPrototype% "Intl.NumberFormat.prototype" The initial value of the "prototype" data property of the intrinsic %NumberFormat% (11.3.1).
%DateTimeFormat% "Intl.DateTimeFormat" The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor (12.2).
%DateTimeFormatPrototype% "Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype" The initial value of the "prototype" data property of the intrinsic %DateTimeFormat% (12.3.1).
%StringProto_includes% "String.prototype.includes" The initial value of the "includes" data property of the intrinsic %StringPrototype% (ES2016, 21.1.3.7)
%StringProto_indexOf% "String.prototype.indexOf" The initial value of the "indexOf" data property of the intrinsic %StringPrototype% (ES2016, 21.1.3.8)
%ArrayProto_indexOf% "Array.prototype.indexOf" The initial value of the "indexOf" data property of the intrinsic %ArrayPrototype% (ES2016, 22.1.3.12)

6Identification of Locales, Currencies, and Time Zones#

This clause describes the String values used in the ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification to identify locales, currencies, and time zones.

6.1Case Sensitivity and Case Mapping#

The String values used to identify locales, currencies, and time zones are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner, treating the Unicode Basic Latin characters "A" to "Z" (U+0041 to U+005A) as equivalent to the corresponding Basic Latin characters "a" to "z" (U+0061 to U+007A). No other case folding equivalences are applied. When mapping to upper case, a mapping shall be used that maps characters in the range "a" to "z" (U+0061 to U+007A) to the corresponding characters in the range "A" to "Z" (U+0041 to U+005A) and maps no other characters to the latter range.

EXAMPLES "ß" (U+00DF) must not match or be mapped to "SS" (U+0053, U+0053). "ı" (U+0131) must not match or be mapped to "I" (U+0049).

6.2Language Tags#

The ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification identifies locales using language tags as defined by IETF BCP 47 (RFCs 5646 and 4647 or their successors), which may include extensions such as those registered through RFC 6067. Their canonical form is specified in RFC 5646 section 4.5 or its successor.

BCP 47 language tags that meet those validity criteria of RFC 5646 section 2.2.9 that can be verified without reference to the IANA Language Subtag Registry are considered structurally valid. All structurally valid language tags are valid for use with the APIs defined by this standard. However, the set of locales and thus language tags that an implementation supports with adequate localizations is implementation dependent. The constructors Collator, NumberFormat, and DateTimeFormat map the language tags used in requests to locales supported by their respective implementations.

6.2.1Unicode Locale Extension Sequences#

This standard uses the term "Unicode locale extension sequence" for any substring of a language tag that is not part of a private use subtag sequence, starts with a separator "-" and the singleton "u", and includes the maximum sequence of following non-singleton subtags and their preceding "-" separators.

6.2.2IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag (locale)#

The IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag abstract operation verifies that the locale argument (which must be a String value)

  • represents a well-formed BCP 47 language tag as specified in RFC 5646 section 2.1, or successor,
  • does not include duplicate variant subtags, and
  • does not include duplicate singleton subtags.

The abstract operation returns true if locale can be generated from the ABNF grammar in section 2.1 of the RFC, starting with Language-Tag, and does not contain duplicate variant or singleton subtags (other than as a private use subtag). It returns false otherwise. Terminal value characters in the grammar are interpreted as the Unicode equivalents of the ASCII octet values given.

6.2.3CanonicalizeLanguageTag (locale)#

The CanonicalizeLanguageTag abstract operation returns the canonical and case-regularized form of the locale argument (which must be a String value that is a structurally valid BCP 47 language tag as verified by the IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag abstract operation). It takes the steps specified in RFC 5646 section 4.5, or successor, to bring the language tag into canonical form, and to regularize the case of the subtags, but does not take the steps to bring a language tag into "extlang form" and to reorder variant subtags.

The specifications for extensions to BCP 47 language tags, such as RFC 6067, may include canonicalization rules for the extension subtag sequences they define that go beyond the canonicalization rules of RFC 5646 section 4.5. Implementations are allowed, but not required, to apply these additional rules.

6.2.4DefaultLocale ()#

The DefaultLocale abstract operation returns a String value representing the structurally valid (6.2.2) and canonicalized (6.2.3) BCP 47 language tag for the host environment’s current locale.

6.3Currency Codes#

The ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification identifies currencies using 3-letter currency codes as defined by ISO 4217. Their canonical form is upper case.

All well-formed 3-letter ISO 4217 currency codes are allowed. However, the set of combinations of currency code and language tag for which localized currency symbols are available is implementation dependent. Where a localized currency symbol is not available, the ISO 4217 currency code is used for formatting.

6.3.1IsWellFormedCurrencyCode (currency)#

The IsWellFormedCurrencyCode abstract operation verifies that the currency argument (which must be a String value) represents a well-formed 3-letter ISO currency code. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let normalized be the result of mapping currency to upper case as described in 6.1.
  2. If the string length of normalized is not 3, return false.
  3. If normalized contains any character that is not in the range "A" to "Z" (U+0041 to U+005A), return false.
  4. Return true.

6.4Time Zone Names#

The ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification identifies time zones using the Zone and Link names of the IANA Time Zone Database. Their canonical form is the corresponding Zone name in the casing used in the IANA Time Zone Database.

All registered Zone and Link names are allowed. Implementations must recognize all such names, and use best available current and historical information about their offsets from UTC and their daylight saving time rules in calculations. However, the set of combinations of time zone name and language tag for which localized time zone names are available is implementation dependent.

6.4.1IsValidTimeZoneName (timeZone)#

The IsValidTimeZoneName abstract operation verifies that the timeZone argument (which must be a String value) represents a valid Zone or Link name of the IANA Time Zone Database.

The abstract operation returns true if timeZone, converted to upper case as described in 6.1, is equal to one of the Zone or Link names of the IANA Time Zone Database, converted to upper case as described in 6.1. It returns false otherwise.

6.4.2CanonicalizeTimeZoneName#

The CanonicalizeTimeZoneName abstract operation returns the canonical and case-regularized form of the timeZone argument (which must be a String value that is a valid time zone name as verified by the IsValidTimeZoneName abstract operation). The following steps are taken:

  1. Let ianaTimeZone be the Zone or Link name of the IANA Time Zone Database such that timeZone, converted to upper case as described in 6.1, is equal to ianaTimeZone, converted to upper case as described in 6.1.
  2. If ianaTimeZone is a Link name, let ianaTimeZone be the corresponding Zone name as specified in the "backward" file of the IANA Time Zone Database.
  3. If ianaTimeZone is "Etc/UTC" or "Etc/GMT", return "UTC".
  4. Return ianaTimeZone.

The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor allows this time zone name; if the time zone is not specified, the host environment’s current time zone is used. Implementations shall support UTC and the host environment’s current time zone (if different from UTC) in formatting.

6.4.3DefaultTimeZone ()#

The DefaultTimeZone abstract operation returns a String value representing the valid (6.4.1) and canonicalized (6.4.2) time zone name for the host environment’s current time zone.

7Requirements for Standard Built-in ECMAScript Objects#

Unless specified otherwise in this document, the objects, functions, and constructors described in this standard are subject to the generic requirements and restrictions specified for standard built-in ECMAScript objects in the ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification, 7th edition, clause 17, or successor.

8The Intl Object#

The Intl object is the %Intl% intrinsic object and the initial value of the Intl property of the global object. The Intl object is a single ordinary object.

The value of the [[Prototype]] internal slot of the Intl object is the intrinsic object %ObjectPrototype%.

The Intl object is not a function object. It does not have a [[Construct]] internal method; it is not possible to use the Intl object as a constructor with the new operator. The Intl object does not have a [[Call]] internal method; it is not possible to invoke the Intl object as a function.

8.1Constructor Properties of the Intl Object#

8.1.1Intl.Collator (...)#

See 10.

8.1.2Intl.NumberFormat (...)#

See 11.

8.1.3Intl.DateTimeFormat (...)#

See 12.

8.2Function Properties of the Intl Object#

8.2.1Intl.getCanonicalLocales (locales)#

When the getCanonicalLocales method of Intl is called with argument locales, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let ll be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Return CreateArrayFromList(ll).

9Locale and Parameter Negotiation#

The constructors for the objects providing locale sensitive services, Collator, NumberFormat, and DateTimeFormat, use a common pattern to negotiate the requests represented by the locales and options arguments against the actual capabilities of their implementations. The common behaviour is described here in terms of internal slots describing the capabilities and of abstract operations using these internal slots.

9.1Internal slots of Service Constructors#

The constructors Intl.Collator, Intl.NumberFormat, and Intl.DateTimeFormat have the following internal slots:

  • [[availableLocales]] is a List that contains structurally valid (6.2.2) and canonicalized (6.2.3) BCP 47 language tags identifying the locales for which the implementation provides the functionality of the constructed objects. Language tags on the list must not have a Unicode locale extension sequence. The list must include the value returned by the DefaultLocale abstract operation (6.2.4), and must not include duplicates. Implementations must include in [[availableLocales]] locales that can serve as fallbacks in the algorithm used to resolve locales (see 9.2.6). For example, implementations that provide a "de-DE" locale must include a "de" locale that can serve as a fallback for requests such as "de-AT" and "de-CH". For locales that in current usage would include a script subtag (such as Chinese locales), old-style language tags without script subtags must be included such that, for example, requests for "zh-TW" and "zh-HK" lead to output in traditional Chinese rather than the default simplified Chinese. The ordering of the locales within [[availableLocales]] is irrelevant.
  • [[relevantExtensionKeys]] is a List of keys of the language tag extensions defined in Unicode Technical Standard 35 that are relevant for the functionality of the constructed objects.
  • [[sortLocaleData]] and [[searchLocaleData]] (for Intl.Collator) and [[localeData]] (for Intl.NumberFormat and Intl.DateTimeFormat) are objects that have properties for each locale contained in [[availableLocales]]. The value of each of these properties must be an object that has properties for each key contained in [[relevantExtensionKeys]]. The value of each of these properties must be a non-empty array of those values defined in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the given key that are supported by the implementation for the given locale, with the first element providing the default value.

EXAMPLE An implementation of DateTimeFormat might include the language tag "th" in its [[availableLocales]] internal slot, and must (according to 12.3.3) include the key "ca" in its [[relevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot. For Thai, the "buddhist" calendar is usually the default, but an implementation might also support the calendars "gregory", "chinese", and "islamicc" for the locale "th". The [[localeData]] internal slot would therefore at least include {"th": {ca: ["buddhist", "gregory", "chinese", "islamicc"]}}.

9.2Abstract Operations#

Where the following abstract operations take an availableLocales argument, it must be an [[availableLocales]] List as specified in 9.1.

9.2.1CanonicalizeLocaleList (locales)#

The abstract operation CanonicalizeLocaleList takes the following steps:

  1. If locales is undefined, then
    1. Return a new empty List.
  2. Let seen be a new empty List.
  3. If Type(locales) is String, then
    1. Let O be CreateArrayFromListlocales »).
  4. Else,
    1. Let O be ? ToObject(locales).
  5. Let len be ? ToLength(? Get(O, "length")).
  6. Let k be 0.
  7. Repeat, while k < len
    1. Let Pk be ToString(k).
    2. Let kPresent be ? HasProperty(O, Pk).
    3. If kPresent is true, then
      1. Let kValue be ? Get(O, Pk).
      2. If Type(kValue) is not String or Object, throw a TypeError exception.
      3. Let tag be ? ToString(kValue).
      4. If IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag(tag) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
      5. Let canonicalizedTag be CanonicalizeLanguageTag(tag).
      6. If canonicalizedTag is not an element of seen, append canonicalizedTag as the last element of seen.
    4. Increase k by 1.
  8. Return seen.
Note 1 Non-normative summary: The abstract operation interprets the locales argument as an array and copies its elements into a List, validating the elements as structurally valid language tags and canonicalizing them, and omitting duplicates. Note 2 Requiring kValue to be a String or Object means that the Number value NaN will not be interpreted as the language tag "nan", which stands for Min Nan Chinese.

9.2.2BestAvailableLocale (availableLocales, locale)#

The BestAvailableLocale abstract operation compares the provided argument locale, which must be a String value with a structurally valid and canonicalized BCP 47 language tag, against the locales in availableLocales and returns either the longest non-empty prefix of locale that is an element of availableLocales, or undefined if there is no such element. It uses the fallback mechanism of RFC 4647, section 3.4. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let candidate be locale.
  2. Repeat
    1. If availableLocales contains an element equal to candidate, return candidate.
    2. Let pos be the character index of the last occurrence of "-" (U+002D) within candidate. If that character does not occur, return undefined.
    3. If pos ≥ 2 and the character "-" occurs at index pos-2 of candidate, decrease pos by 2.
    4. Let candidate be the substring of candidate from position 0, inclusive, to position pos, exclusive.

9.2.3LookupMatcher (availableLocales, requestedLocales)#

The LookupMatcher abstract operation compares requestedLocales, which must be a List as returned by CanonicalizeLocaleList, against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let k be 0.
  2. Let rLocales be CreateArrayFromList(requestedLocales).
  3. Let len be ! ToLength(! Get(rLocales, "length")).
  4. Let availableLocale be undefined.
  5. Repeat while k < len and availableLocale is undefined:
    1. Let locale be ! Get(rLocales, ! ToString(k)) .
    2. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is locale with all Unicode locale extension sequences removed.
    3. Let availableLocale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
    4. Increase k by 1.
  6. Let result be a new Record.
  7. If availableLocale is not undefined, then
    1. Set result.[[locale]] to availableLocale.
    2. If locale and noExtensionsLocale are not the same String value, then
      1. Let extension be the String value consisting of the first substring of locale that is a Unicode locale extension sequence.
      2. Set result.[[extension]] to extension.
  8. Else,
    1. Let defLocale be DefaultLocale().
    2. Set result.[[locale]] to defLocale.
  9. Return result.
Note The algorithm is based on the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, but options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences are ignored in the lookup. Information about such subsequences is returned separately. The abstract operation returns a record with a [[locale]] field, whose value is the language tag of the selected locale, which must be an element of availableLocales. If the language tag of the request locale that led to the selected locale contained a Unicode locale extension sequence, then the returned record also contains an [[extension]] field whose value is the first Unicode locale extension sequence within the request locale language tag.

9.2.4BestFitMatcher (availableLocales, requestedLocales)#

The BestFitMatcher abstract operation compares requestedLocales, which must be a List as returned by CanonicalizeLocaleList, against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. The algorithm is implementation dependent, but should produce results that a typical user of the requested locales would perceive as at least as good as those produced by the LookupMatcher abstract operation. Options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences must be ignored by the algorithm. Information about such subsequences is returned separately. The abstract operation returns a record with a [[locale]] field, whose value is the language tag of the selected locale, which must be an element of availableLocales. If the language tag of the request locale that led to the selected locale contained a Unicode locale extension sequence, then the returned record also contains an [[extension]] field whose value is the first Unicode locale extension sequence within the request locale language tag.

9.2.5UnicodeExtensionSubtags (extension)#

The abstract operation UnicodeExtensionSubtags splits extension, which must be a Unicode locale extension sequence, into its subtags. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let size be the number of elements in extension.
  2. If size = 0, then
    1. Return « ».
  3. Let extensionSubtags be « ».
  4. Let attribute be true.
  5. Let q be 3.
  6. Let p be q.
  7. Let t be q.
  8. Repeat, while q < size
    1. Let c be the code unit value of the element at index q in the String extension.
    2. If c is 0x002D (HYPHEN-MINUS), then
      1. If q - p = 2, then
        1. If p - t > 1, then
          1. Let type be a String value equal to the substring of extension consisting of the code units at indices t (inclusive) through p - 1 (exclusive).
          2. Append type as the last element of extensionSubtags.
        2. Let key be a String value equal to the substring of extension consisting of the code units at indices p (inclusive) through q (exclusive).
        3. Append key as the last element of extensionSubtags.
        4. Let t be q + 1.
        5. Let attribute be false.
      2. Else if attribute is true, then
        1. Let attr be a String value equal to the substring of extension consisting of the code units at indices p (inclusive) through q (exclusive).
        2. Append attr as the last element of extensionSubtags.
        3. Let t be q + 1.
      3. Let p be q + 1.
    3. Let q be q + 1.
  9. If size - p = 2, then
    1. If p - t > 1, then
      1. Let type be a String value equal to the substring of extension consisting of the code units at indices t (inclusive) through p - 1 (exclusive).
      2. Append type as the last element of extensionSubtags.
    2. Let t be p.
  10. Let tail be a String value equal to the substring of extension consisting of the code units at indices t (inclusive) through size (exclusive).
  11. Append tail as the last element of extensionSubtags.
  12. Return extensionSubtags.

9.2.6ResolveLocale (availableLocales, requestedLocales, options, relevantExtensionKeys, localeData)#

The ResolveLocale abstract operation compares a BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. availableLocales, requestedLocales, and relevantExtensionKeys must be provided as List values, options as a Record.

The following steps are taken:

  1. Let matcher be the value of options.[[localeMatcher]].
  2. If matcher is "lookup", then
    1. Let r be LookupMatcher(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  3. Else,
    1. Let r be BestFitMatcher(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  4. Let foundLocale be the value of r.[[locale]].
  5. If r has an [[extension]] field, then
    1. Let extension be the value of r.[[extension]].
    2. Let extensionSubtags be CreateArrayFromList(UnicodeExtensionSubtags(extension)).
    3. Let extensionSubtagsLength be Get(extensionSubtags, "length").
  6. Let result be a new Record.
  7. Set result.[[dataLocale]] to foundLocale.
  8. Let supportedExtension be "-u".
  9. Let k be 0.
  10. Let rExtensionKeys be CreateArrayFromList(relevantExtensionKeys).
  11. Let len be ! ToLength(! Get(rExtensionKeys, "length")).
  12. Repeat while k < len
    1. Let key be ! Get(rExtensionKeys, ! ToString(k)).
    2. Let foundLocaleData be ? Get(localeData, foundLocale).
    3. Let keyLocaleData be ? ToObject(Get(foundLocaleData, key)).
    4. Let value be ? ToString(Get(keyLocaleData, "0")).
    5. Let supportedExtensionAddition be "".
    6. If extensionSubtags is not undefined, then
      1. Let keyPos be Call(%ArrayProto_indexOf%, extensionSubtags, « key ») .
      2. If keyPos ≠ -1, then
        1. If keyPos + 1 < extensionSubtagsLength and the length property of the result of Get(extensionSubtags, ToString(keyPos +1)) is greater than 2, then
          1. Let requestedValue be Get(extensionSubtags, ToString(keyPos +1)).
          2. If the result of Call(%StringProto_includes%, keyLocaleData, « requestedValue ») is true, then
            1. Let value be requestedValue.
            2. Let supportedExtensionAddition be the concatenation of "-", key, "-", and value.
        2. Else if the result of Call(%StringProto_includes%, keyLocaleData, « "true" ») is true, then
          1. Let value be "true".
    7. If options has a field [[<key>]], then
      1. Let optionsValue be ? ToString(options.[[<key>]]).
      2. If the result of Call(%StringProto_includes%, keyLocaleData, « optionsValue ») is true, then
        1. If optionsValue is not equal to value, then
          1. Let value be optionsValue.
          2. Let supportedExtensionAddition be "".
    8. Set result.[[<key>]] to value.
    9. Append supportedExtensionAddition to supportedExtension.
    10. Increase k by 1.
  13. If the number of elements in supportedExtension is greater than 2, then
    1. Let privateIndex be Call(%StringProto_indexOf%, foundLocale, « "-x-" »).
    2. If privateIndex = -1, then
      1. Let foundLocale be the concatenation of foundLocale and supportedExtension.
    3. Else,
      1. Let preExtension be the substring of foundLocale from position 0, inclusive, to position privateIndex, exclusive.
      2. Let postExtension be the substring of foundLocale from position privateIndex to the end of the string.
      3. Let foundLocale be the concatenation of preExtension, supportedExtension, and postExtension.
    4. Assert: IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag(foundLocale) is true.
    5. Let foundLocale be CanonicalizeLanguageTag(foundLocale).
  14. Set result.[[locale]] to foundLocale.
  15. Return result.
Note Non-normative summary: Two algorithms are available to match the locales: the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, and an implementation dependent best-fit algorithm. Independent of the locale matching algorithm, options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences are negotiated separately, taking the caller’s relevant extension keys and locale data as well as client-provided options into consideration. The abstract operation returns a record with a [[locale]] field whose value is the language tag of the selected locale, and fields for each key in relevantExtensionKeys providing the selected value for that key.

9.2.7LookupSupportedLocales (availableLocales, requestedLocales)#

The LookupSupportedLocales abstract operation returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale when using the BCP 47 Lookup algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let rLocales be CreateArrayFromList(requestedLocales).
  2. Let len be ! ToLength(! Get(rLocales, "length")).
  3. Let subset be a new empty List.
  4. Let k be 0.
  5. Repeat while k < len
    1. Let locale be ! Get(rLocales, ! ToString(k)).
    2. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is locale with all Unicode locale extension sequences removed.
    3. Let availableLocale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
    4. If availableLocale is not undefined, append locale to the end of subset.
    5. Increment k by 1.
  6. Return subset.

9.2.8BestFitSupportedLocales (availableLocales, requestedLocales)#

The BestFitSupportedLocales abstract operation returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale when using the Best Fit Matcher algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales. The steps taken are implementation dependent.

9.2.9SupportedLocales (availableLocales, requestedLocales, options)#

The SupportedLocales abstract operation returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale. Two algorithms are available to match the locales: the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, and an implementation dependent best-fit algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales. The following steps are taken:

  1. If options is not undefined, then
    1. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", "string", « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  2. Else let matcher be "best fit".
  3. If matcher is "best fit",
    1. Let supportedLocales be BestFitSupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  4. Else,
    1. Let supportedLocales be LookupSupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  5. Let subset be CreateArrayFromList(supportedLocales).
  6. Let keys be subset.[[OwnPropertyKeys]]().
  7. Repeat for each element P of keys in List order,
    1. Let desc be PropertyDescriptor { [[Configurable]]: false, [[Writable]]: false }.
    2. Perform ! DefinePropertyOrThrow(subset, P, desc).
  8. Return subset.

9.2.10GetOption (options, property, type, values, fallback)#

The abstract operation GetOption extracts the value of the property named property from the provided options object, converts it to the required type, checks whether it is one of a List of allowed values, and fills in a fallback value if necessary.

  1. Let opts be ? ToObject(options).
  2. Let value be ? Get(opts, property).
  3. If value is not undefined, then
    1. Assert: type is "boolean" or "string".
    2. If type is "boolean", then
      1. Let value be ToBoolean(value).
    3. If type is "string", then
      1. Let value be ? ToString(value).
    4. If values is not undefined, then
      1. If values does not contain an element equal to value, throw a RangeError exception.
    5. Return value.
  4. Else, return fallback.

9.2.11GetNumberOption (options, property, minimum, maximum, fallback)#

The abstract operation GetNumberOption extracts the value of the property named property from the provided options object, converts it to a Number value, checks whether it is in the allowed range, and fills in a fallback value if necessary.

  1. Let opts be ? ToObject(options).
  2. Let value be ? Get(opts, property).
  3. If value is not undefined, then
    1. Let value be ? ToNumber(value).
    2. If value is NaN or less than minimum or greater than maximum, throw a RangeError exception.
    3. Return floor(value).
  4. Else, return fallback.

10Collator Objects#

10.1The Intl.Collator Constructor#

The Intl.Collator constructor is the %Collator% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

10.1.1InitializeCollator (collator, locales, options)#

The abstract operation InitializeCollator accepts the arguments collator (which must be an object), locales, and options. It initializes collator as a Collator object.

Several steps in the algorithm use values from the following table, which associates Unicode locale extension keys, property names, types, and allowable values:

Table 1: Collator options settable through both extension keys and options properties
Key Property Type Values
kn numeric "boolean"
kf caseFirst "string" "upper", "lower", "false"

The following steps are taken:

  1. If collator has an [[initializedIntlObject]] internal slot with value true, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Set collator.[[initializedIntlObject]] to true.
  3. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  4. If options is undefined, then
    1. Let options be ObjectCreate(%ObjectPrototype%).
  5. Else,
    1. Let options be ? ToObject(options).
  6. Let u be ? GetOption(options, "usage", "string", « "sort", "search" », "sort").
  7. Set collator.[[usage]] to u.
  8. If u is "sort", then
    1. Let localeData be the value of %Collator%.[[sortLocaleData]].
  9. Else,
    1. Let localeData be the value of %Collator%.[[searchLocaleData]].
  10. Let opt be a new Record.
  11. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", "string", « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  12. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  13. For each row in Table 1, except the header row, do:
    1. Let key be the name given in the Key column of the row.
    2. Let prop be the name given in the Property column of the row.
    3. Let type be the string given in the Type column of the row.
    4. Let list be a List containing the Strings given in the Values column of the row, or undefined if no strings are given.
    5. Let value be ? GetOption(options, prop, type, list, undefined).
    6. If the string given in the Type column of the row is "boolean" and value is not undefined, then
      1. Let value be ! ToString(value).
    7. Set opt.[[<key>]] to value.
  14. Let relevantExtensionKeys be the value of %Collator%.[[relevantExtensionKeys]].
  15. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Collator%.[[availableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, relevantExtensionKeys, localeData).
  16. Set collator.[[locale]] to the value of r.[[locale]].
  17. Let k be 0.
  18. Let rExtensionKeys be CreateArrayFromList(relevantExtensionKeys).
  19. Let len be ! ToLength(! Get(rExtensionKeys, "length")).
  20. Repeat while k < len:
    1. Let key be ! Get(rExtensionKeys, ! ToString(k)).
    2. If key is "co", then
      1. Let property be "collation".
      2. Let value be the value of r.[[co]].
      3. If value is null, let value be "default".
    3. Else use the row of Table 1 that contains the value of key in the Key column:
      1. Let property be the name given in the Property column of the row.
      2. Let value be the value of r.[[<key>]].
      3. If the name given in the Type column of the row is "boolean", let value be the result of comparing value with "true".
    4. Set collator.[[<property>]] to value.
    5. Increase k by 1.
  21. Let s be ? GetOption(options, "sensitivity", "string", « "base", "accent", "case", "variant" », undefined).
  22. If s is undefined, then
    1. If u is "sort", then
      1. Let s be "variant".
    2. Else,
      1. Let dataLocale be the value of r.[[dataLocale]].
      2. Let dataLocaleData be Get(localeData, dataLocale).
      3. Let s be Get(dataLocaleData, "sensitivity").
  23. Set collator.[[sensitivity]] to s.
  24. Let ip be ? GetOption(options, "ignorePunctuation", "boolean", undefined, false).
  25. Set collator.[[ignorePunctuation]] to ip.
  26. Set collator.[[boundCompare]] to undefined.
  27. Set collator.[[initializedCollator]] to true.
  28. Return collator.

10.1.2Intl.Collator ([ locales [ , options ]])#

When the Intl.Collator function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let internalSlotsList be « [[initializedIntlObject]], [[initializedCollator]], [[locale]], [[usage]], [[sensitivity]], [[ignorePunctuation]], [[collation]], [[boundCompare]] ».
  3. If %Collator%.[[relevantExtensionKeys]] contains "kn", then
    1. Append [[numeric]] as the last element of internalSlotsList.
  4. If %Collator%.[[relevantExtensionKeys]] contains "kf", then
    1. Append [[caseFirst]] as the last element of internalSlotsList.
  5. Let collator be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%CollatorPrototype%", internalSlotsList).
  6. Return ? InitializeCollator(collator, locales, options).

10.2Properties of the Intl.Collator Constructor#

The Intl.Collator constructor has the following properties:

10.2.1Intl.Collator.prototype#

The value of Intl.Collator.prototype is %CollatorPrototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

10.2.2Intl.Collator.supportedLocalesOf (locales [ , options ])#

When the supportedLocalesOf method of Intl.Collator is called, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Return ? SupportedLocales(%Collator%.[[availableLocales]], requestedLocales, options).

The value of the length property of the supportedLocalesOf method is 1.

10.2.3Internal Slots#

The value of the [[availableLocales]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1. The value of the [[relevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is a List that must include the element "co", may include any or all of the elements "kn" and "kf", and must not include any other elements.

Note Unicode Technical Standard 35 describes ten locale extension keys that are relevant to collation: "co" for collator usage and specializations, "ka" for alternate handling, "kb" for backward second level weight, "kc" for case level, "kn" for numeric, "kh" for hiragana quaternary, "kk" for normalization, "kf" for case first, "kr" for reordering, "ks" for collation strength, and "vt" for variable top. Collator, however, requires that the usage is specified through the usage property of the options object, alternate handling through the ignorePunctuation property of the options object, and case level and the strength through the sensitivity property of the options object. The "co" key in the language tag is supported only for collator specializations, and the keys "kb", "kh", "kk", "kr", and "vt" are not allowed in this version of the Internationalization API. Support for the remaining keys is implementation dependent.

The values of the [[sortLocaleData]] and [[searchLocaleData]] internal slots are implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints:

  • The first element of [[sortLocaleData]][locale].co and [[searchLocaleData]][locale].co must be null for all locale values.
  • The values "standard" and "search" must not be used as elements in any [[sortLocaleData]][locale].co and [[searchLocaleData]][locale].co array.
  • [[searchLocaleData]][locale] must have a sensitivity property with a String value equal to "base", "accent", "case", or "variant" for all locale values.

10.3Properties of the Intl.Collator Prototype Object#

The Intl.Collator prototype object is the intrinsic object %CollatorPrototype%. The Intl.Collator prototype object is itself an Intl.Collator instance as specified in 10.4, whose internal slots are set as if it had been constructed by the expression Construct(%Collator%, « », %Object%).

In the following descriptions of functions that are properties or [[Get]] attributes of properties of %CollatorPrototype%, the phrase "this Collator object" refers to the object that is the this value for the invocation of the function; a TypeError exception is thrown if the this value is not an object or an object that does not have an [[initializedCollator]] internal slot with value true.

10.3.1Intl.Collator.prototype.constructor#

The value of Intl.Collator.prototype.constructor is %Collator%.

10.3.2Intl.Collator.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]#

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the string value "Object".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

10.3.3get Intl.Collator.prototype.compare#

This named accessor property returns a function that compares two strings according to the sort order of this Collator object.

The value of the [[Get]] attribute is a function that takes the following steps:

  1. Let collator be this value.
  2. If Type(collator) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. If collator does not have an [[initializedCollator]] internal slot, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. If collator.[[boundCompare]] is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in 10.3.4.
    2. Let bc be BoundFunctionCreate(F, collator, « »).
    3. Perform ! DefinePropertyOrThrow(bc, "length", PropertyDescriptor {[[Value]]: 2, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true}).
    4. Set collator.[[boundCompare]] to bc.
  5. Return collator.[[boundCompare]].
Note The function returned by [[Get]] is bound to this Collator object so that it can be passed directly to Array.prototype.sort or other functions.

The value of the [[Set]] attribute is undefined.

10.3.4Collator Compare Functions#

A Collator compare function is an anonymous function that takes two arguments, x and y, and performs the following steps:

  1. Let collator be the this value.
  2. Assert: Type(collator) is Object and collator has an [[initializedCollator]] internal slot whose value is true.
  3. If x is not provided, let x be undefined.
  4. If y is not provided, let y be undefined.
  5. Let X be ? ToString(x).
  6. Let Y be ? ToString(y).
  7. Return CompareStrings(collator, X, Y).

When the CompareStrings abstract operation is called with arguments collator (which must be an object initialized as a Collator), x and y (which must be String values), it returns a Number other than NaN that represents the result of a locale-sensitive String comparison of x with y. The two Strings are compared in an implementation-defined fashion. The result is intended to order String values in the sort order specified by the effective locale and collation options computed during construction of collator, and will be negative, zero, or positive, depending on whether x comes before y in the sort order, the Strings are equal under the sort order, or x comes after y in the sort order, respectively. String values must be interpreted as UTF-16 code unit sequences, and a surrogate pair (a code unit in the range 0xD800 to 0xDBFF followed by a code unit in the range 0xDC00 to 0xDFFF) within a string must be interpreted as the corresponding code point.

The sensitivity of collator is interpreted as follows:

  • base: Only strings that differ in base letters compare as unequal. Examples: a ≠ b, a = á, a = A.
  • accent: Only strings that differ in base letters or accents and other diacritic marks compare as unequal. Examples: a ≠ b, a ≠ á, a = A.
  • case: Only strings that differ in base letters or case compare as unequal. Examples: a ≠ b, a = á, a ≠ A.
  • variant: Strings that differ in base letters, accents and other diacritic marks, or case compare as unequal. Other differences may also be taken into consideration. Examples: a ≠ b, a ≠ á, a ≠ A.
Note 1 In some languages, certain letters with diacritic marks are considered base letters. For example, in Swedish, “ö” is a base letter that’s different from “o”.

If the collator is set to ignore punctuation, then strings that differ only in punctuation compare as equal.

For the interpretation of options settable through extension keys, see Unicode Technical Standard 35.

The CompareStrings abstract operation with any given collator argument, if considered as a function of the remaining two arguments x and y, must be a consistent comparison function (as defined in ES2016, 22.1.3.25) on the set of all Strings.

The actual return values are implementation-defined to permit implementers to encode additional information in the value. The method is required to return 0 when comparing Strings that are considered canonically equivalent by the Unicode standard.

Note 2 It is recommended that the CompareStrings abstract operation be implemented following Unicode Technical Standard 10, Unicode Collation Algorithm (available at http://unicode.org/reports/tr10/), using tailorings for the effective locale and collation options of collator. It is recommended that implementations use the tailorings provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/). Note 3 Applications should not assume that the behaviour of the CompareStrings abstract operation for Collator instances with the same resolved options will remain the same for different versions of the same implementation.

10.3.5Intl.Collator.prototype.resolvedOptions ()#

This function provides access to the locale and collation options computed during initialization of the object.

The function returns a new object whose properties and attributes are set as if constructed by an object literal assigning to each of the following properties the value of the corresponding internal slot of this Collator object (see 10.4): locale, usage, sensitivity, ignorePunctuation, collation, as well as those properties shown in Table 1 whose keys are included in the %Collator%[[relevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot of the standard built-in object that is the initial value of Intl.Collator.

10.4Properties of Intl.Collator Instances#

Intl.Collator instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %CollatorPrototype%.

Intl.Collator instances and other objects that have been successfully initialized as a Collator have [[initializedIntlObject]] and [[initializedCollator]] internal slots whose values are true.

Objects that have been successfully initialized as a Collator also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for collation.
  • [[usage]] is one of the String values "sort" or "search", identifying the collator usage.
  • [[sensitivity]] is one of the String values "base", "accent", "case", or "variant", identifying the collator’s sensitivity.
  • [[ignorePunctuation]] is a Boolean value, specifying whether punctuation should be ignored in comparisons.
  • [[collation]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the collation, except that the values "standard" and "search" are not allowed, while the value "default" is allowed.

Objects that have been successfully initialized as a Collator also have the following internal slots if the key corresponding to the name of the internal slot in Table 1 is included in the [[relevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot of Intl.Collator:

  • [[numeric]] is a Boolean value, specifying whether numeric sorting is used.
  • [[caseFirst]] is a String value; allowed values are specified in Table 1.

Finally, objects that have been successfully initialized as a Collator have a [[boundCompare]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the compare accessor (10.3.3).

11NumberFormat Objects#

11.1Abstract Operations For NumberFormat Objects#

11.1.1InitializeNumberFormat (numberFormat, locales, options)#

The abstract operation InitializeNumberFormat accepts the arguments numberFormat (which must be an object), locales, and options. It initializes numberFormat as a NumberFormat object.

The following steps are taken:

  1. If numberFormat has an [[initializedIntlObject]] internal slot with value true, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Set numberFormat.[[initializedIntlObject]] to true.
  3. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  4. If options is undefined, then
    1. Let options be ObjectCreate(%ObjectPrototype%).
  5. Else,
    1. Let options be ? ToObject(options).
  6. Let opt be a new Record.
  7. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", "string", « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  8. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  9. Let localeData be %NumberFormat%.[[localeData]].
  10. Let r be ResolveLocale(%NumberFormat%.[[availableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %NumberFormat%.[[relevantExtensionKeys]], localeData).
  11. Set numberFormat.[[locale]] to the value of r.[[locale]].
  12. Set numberFormat.[[numberingSystem]] to the value of r.[[nu]].
  13. Let dataLocale be r.[[dataLocale]].
  14. Let s be ? GetOption(options, "style", "string", « "decimal", "percent", "currency" », "decimal").
  15. Set numberFormat.[[style]] to s.
  16. Let c be ? GetOption(options, "currency", "string", undefined, undefined).
  17. If c is not undefined, then
    1. If the result of IsWellFormedCurrencyCode(c) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
  18. If s is "currency" and c is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  19. If s is "currency", then
    1. Let c be converting c to upper case as specified in 6.1.
    2. Set numberFormat.[[currency]] to c.
    3. Let cDigits be CurrencyDigits(c).
  20. Let cd be ? GetOption(options, "currencyDisplay", "string", « "code", "symbol", "name" », "symbol").
  21. If s is "currency", set numberFormat.[[currencyDisplay]] to cd.
  22. Let mnid be ? GetNumberOption(options, "minimumIntegerDigits", 1, 21, 1).
  23. Set numberFormat.[[minimumIntegerDigits]] to mnid.
  24. If s is "currency", let mnfdDefault be cDigits; else let mnfdDefault be 0.
  25. Let mnfd be ? GetNumberOption(options, "minimumFractionDigits", 0, 20, mnfdDefault).
  26. Set numberFormat.[[minimumFractionDigits]] to mnfd.
  27. If s is "currency", let mxfdDefault be max(mnfd, cDigits); else if s is "percent", let mxfdDefault be max(mnfd, 0); else let mxfdDefault be max(mnfd, 3).
  28. Let mxfd be ? GetNumberOption(options, "maximumFractionDigits", mnfd, 20, mxfdDefault).
  29. Set numberFormat.[[maximumFractionDigits]] to mxfd.
  30. Let mnsd be ? Get(options, "minimumSignificantDigits").
  31. Let mxsd be ? Get(options, "maximumSignificantDigits").
  32. If mnsd is not undefined or mxsd is not undefined, then
    1. Let mnsd be ? GetNumberOption(options, "minimumSignificantDigits", 1, 21, 1).
    2. Let mxsd be ? GetNumberOption(options, "maximumSignificantDigits", mnsd, 21, 21).
    3. Set numberFormat.[[minimumSignificantDigits]] to mnsd.
    4. Set numberFormat.[[maximumSignificantDigits]] to mxsd.
  33. Let g be ? GetOption(options, "useGrouping", "boolean", undefined, true).
  34. Set numberFormat.[[useGrouping]] to g.
  35. Let dataLocaleData be Get(localeData, dataLocale).
  36. Let patterns be Get(dataLocaleData, "patterns").
  37. Assert: patterns is an object (see 11.3.3).
  38. Let stylePatterns be Get(patterns, s).
  39. Set numberFormat.[[positivePattern]] to Get(stylePatterns, "positivePattern").
  40. Set numberFormat.[[negativePattern]] to Get(stylePatterns, "negativePattern").
  41. Set numberFormat.[[boundFormat]] to undefined.
  42. Set numberFormat.[[initializedNumberFormat]] to true.
  43. Return numberFormat.

11.1.2CurrencyDigits (currency)#

When the abstract operation CurrencyDigits is called with an argument currency (which must be an upper case String value), the following steps are taken:

  1. If the ISO 4217 currency and funds code list contains currency as an alphabetic code, return the minor unit value corresponding to the currency from the list; otherwise, return 2.

11.1.3Number Format Functions#

When a Number format function is called with optional argument value, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let nf be the this value.
  2. Assert: Type(nf) is Object and nf has an [[initializedNumberFormat]] internal slot whose value is true.
  3. If value is not provided, let value be undefined.
  4. Let x be ? ToNumber(value).
  5. Return FormatNumber(nf, x).

The length property of a Number format function is 1.

11.1.4FormatNumber(numberFormat, x)#

When the FormatNumber abstract operation is called with arguments numberFormat (which must be an object initialized as a NumberFormat) and x (which must be a Number value), it returns a String value representing x according to the effective locale and the formatting options of numberFormat. This abstract operation functions as follows:

  1. Let negative be false.
  2. If the result of isFinite(x) is false, then
    1. If x is NaN,
      1. Let n be an ILD String value indicating the NaN value.
    2. Else,
      1. Let n be an ILD String value indicating infinity.
      2. If x < 0, let negative be true.
  3. Else,
    1. If x < 0, then
      1. Let negative be true.
      2. Let x be -x.
    2. If the value of numberFormat.[[style]] is "percent", let x be 100 × x.
    3. If the numberFormat.[[minimumSignificantDigits]] and numberFormat.[[maximumSignificantDigits]] are present, then
      1. Let n be ToRawPrecision(x, numberFormat.[[minimumSignificantDigits]], numberFormat.[[maximumSignificantDigits]]).
    4. Else,
      1. Let n be ToRawFixed(x, numberFormat.[[minimumIntegerDigits]], numberFormat.[[minimumFractionDigits]], numberFormat.[[maximumFractionDigits]]).
    5. If the value of the numberFormat.[[numberingSystem]] matches one of the values in the "Numbering System" column of Table 2 below, then
      1. Let digits be an array whose 10 String valued elements are the UTF-16 string representations of the 10 digits specified in the "Digits" column of the matching row in Table 2.
      2. Replace each digit in n with the value of digits[digit].
    6. Else use an implementation dependent algorithm to map n to the appropriate representation of n in the given numbering system.
    7. If n contains the character ".", replace it with an ILND String representing the decimal separator.
    8. If the value of the numberFormat.[[useGrouping]] is true, insert an ILND String representing a grouping separator into an ILND set of locations within the integer part of n.
  4. If negative is true, then
    1. Let result be the value of numberFormat.[[negativePattern]].
  5. Else,
    1. Let result be the value of numberFormat.[[positivePattern]].
  6. Replace the substring "{number}" within result with n.
  7. If the value of the numberFormat.[[style]] is "currency", then
    1. Let currency be the value of numberFormat.[[currency]].
    2. If numberFormat.[[currencyDisplay]] is "code", then
      1. Let cd be currency.
    3. Else if numberFormat.[[currencyDisplay]] is "symbol", then
      1. Let cd be an ILD string representing currency in short form. If the implementation does not have such a representation of currency, use currency itself.
    4. Else if numberFormat.[[currencyDisplay]] is "name", then
      1. Let cd be an ILD string representing currency in long form. If the implementation does not have such a representation of currency, then use currency itself.
    5. Replace the substring "{currency}" within result with cd.
  8. Return result.
Table 2: Numbering systems with simple digit mappings
Numbering System Digits
arab U+0660 to U+0669
arabext U+06F0 to U+06F9
bali U+1B50 to U+1B59
beng U+09E6 to U+09EF
deva U+0966 to U+096F
fullwide U+FF10 to U+FF19
gujr U+0AE6 to U+0AEF
guru U+0A66 to U+0A6F
hanidec U+3007, U+4E00, U+4E8C, U+4E09, U+56DB, U+4E94, U+516D, U+4E03, U+516B, U+4E5D
khmr U+17E0 to U+17E9
knda U+0CE6 to U+0CEF
laoo U+0ED0 to U+0ED9
latn U+0030 to U+0039
limb U+1946 to U+194F
mlym U+0D66 to U+0D6F
mong U+1810 to U+1819
mymr U+1040 to U+1049
orya U+0B66 to U+0B6F
tamldec U+0BE6 to U+0BEF
telu U+0C66 to U+0C6F
thai U+0E50 to U+0E59
tibt U+0F20 to U+0F29
Note 1 The computations rely on String values and locations within numeric strings that are dependent upon the implementation and the effective locale of numberFormat (“ILD") or upon the implementation, the effective locale, and the numbering system of numberFormat (“ILND"). The ILD and ILND Strings mentioned, other than those for currency names, must not contain any characters in the General Category “Number, decimal digit" as specified by the Unicode Standard. Note 2 It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/).

11.1.5ToRawPrecision(x, minPrecision, maxPrecision)#

When the ToRawPrecision abstract operation is called with arguments x (which must be a finite non-negative number), minPrecision, and maxPrecision (both must be integers between 1 and 21), the following steps are taken:

  1. Let p be maxPrecision.
  2. If x = 0, then
    1. Let m be the String consisting of p occurrences of the character "0".
    2. Let e be 0.
  3. Else,
    1. Let e and n be integers such that 10p–1n < 10p and for which the exact mathematical value of n × 10ep+1x is as close to zero as possible. If there are two such sets of e and n, pick the e and n for which n × 10ep+1 is larger.
    2. Let m be the String consisting of the digits of the decimal representation of n (in order, with no leading zeroes).
  4. If ep, then
    1. Return the concatenation of m and e-p+1 occurrences of the character "0".
  5. If e = p-1, then
    1. Return m.
  6. If e ≥ 0, then
    1. Let m be the concatenation of the first e+1 characters of m, the character ".", and the remaining p–(e+1) characters of m.
  7. If e < 0, then
    1. Let m be the concatenation of the String "0.", –(e+1) occurrences of the character "0", and the string m.
  8. If m contains the character ".", and maxPrecision > minPrecision, then
    1. Let cut be maxPrecisionminPrecision.
    2. Repeat while cut > 0 and the last character of m is "0":
      1. Remove the last character from m.
      2. Decrease cut by 1.
    3. If the last character of m is ".", then
      1. Remove the last character from m.
  9. Return m.

11.1.6ToRawFixed(x, minInteger, minFraction, maxFraction)#

When the ToRawFixed abstract operation is called with arguments x (which must be a finite non-negative number), minInteger (which must be an integer between 1 and 21), minFraction, and maxFraction (which must be integers between 0 and 20), the following steps are taken:

  1. Let f be maxFraction.
  2. Let n be an integer for which the exact mathematical value of n ÷ 10fx is as close to zero as possible. If there are two such n, pick the larger n.
  3. If n = 0, let m be the String "0". Otherwise, let m be the String consisting of the digits of the decimal representation of n (in order, with no leading zeroes).
  4. If f ≠ 0, then
    1. Let k be the number of characters in m.
    2. If kf, then
      1. Let z be the String consisting of f+1–k occurrences of the character "0".
      2. Let m be the concatenation of Strings z and m.
      3. Let k be f+1.
    3. Let a be the first kf characters of m, and let b be the remaining f characters of m.
    4. Let m be the concatenation of the three Strings a, ".", and b.
    5. Let int be the number of characters in a.
  5. Else let int be the number of characters in m.
  6. Let cut be maxFractionminFraction.
  7. Repeat while cut > 0 and the last character of m is "0":
    1. Remove the last character from m.
    2. Decrease cut by 1.
  8. If the last character of m is ".", then
    1. Remove the last character from m.
  9. If int < minInteger, then
    1. Let z be the String consisting of minIntegerint occurrences of the character "0".
    2. Let m be the concatenation of Strings z and m.
  10. Return m.

11.2The Intl.NumberFormat Constructor#

The NumberFormat constructor is the %NumberFormat% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

11.2.1Intl.NumberFormat ([ locales [ , options ]])#

When the Intl.NumberFormat function is called with optional arguments, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let numberFormat be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%NumberFormatPrototype%", « [[initializedIntlObject]], [[initializedNumberFormat]], [[locale]], [[numberingSystem]], [[style]], [[currency]], [[currencyDisplay]], [[minimumIntegerDigits]], [[minimumFractionDigits]], [[maximumFractionDigits]], [[minimumSignificantDigits]], [[maximumSignificantDigits]], [[useGrouping]], [[positivePattern]], [[negativePattern]], [[boundFormat]] »).
  3. Return ? InitializeNumberFormat(numberFormat, locales, options).

11.3Properties of the Intl.NumberFormat Constructor#

The Intl.NumberFormat constructor has the following properties:

11.3.1Intl.NumberFormat.prototype#

The value of Intl.NumberFormat.prototype is %NumberFormatPrototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

11.3.2Intl.NumberFormat.supportedLocalesOf (locales [ , options ])#

When the supportedLocalesOf method of %NumberFormat% is called, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %NumberFormat%.[[availableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

The value of the length property of the supportedLocalesOf method is 1.

11.3.3Internal slots#

The value of the [[availableLocales]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[relevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is «"nu"».

Note 1 Unicode Technical Standard 35 describes two locale extension keys that are relevant to number formatting, "nu" for numbering system and "cu" for currency. Intl.NumberFormat, however, requires that the currency of a currency format is specified through the currency property in the options objects.

The value of the [[localeData]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints:

  • The array that is the value of the "nu" property of any locale property of [[localeData]] must not include the values "native", "traditio", or "finance".
  • [[localeData]][locale] must have a patterns property for all locale values. The value of this property must be an object, which must have properties with the names of the three number format styles: "decimal", "percent", and "currency". Each of these properties in turn must be an object with the properties positivePattern and negativePattern. The value of these properties must be string values that contain a substring "{number}"; the values within the currency property must also contain a substring "{currency}". The pattern strings must not contain any characters in the General Category “Number, decimal digit" as specified by the Unicode Standard.
Note 2 It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/).

11.4Properties of the Intl.NumberFormat Prototype Object#

The Intl.NumberFormat prototype object is the intrinsic object %NumberFormatPrototype%. The Intl.NumberFormat prototype object is itself an Intl.NumberFormat instance as specified in 11.5, whose internal slots are set as if it had been constructed by the expression Construct(%NumberFormat%, « », %Object%).

In the following descriptions of functions that are properties or [[Get]] attributes of properties of %NumberFormatPrototype%, the phrase "this NumberFormat object" refers to the object that is the this value for the invocation of the function; a TypeError exception is thrown if the this value is not an object or an object that does not have an [[initializedNumberFormat]] internal slot with value true.

11.4.1Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.constructor#

The initial value of Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.constructor is %NumberFormat%.

11.4.2Intl.NumberFormat.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]#

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the string value "Object".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

11.4.3get Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.format#

Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.format is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let nf be this value.
  2. If Type(nf) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. If nf does not have an [[initializedNumberFormat]] internal slot, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. If nf.[[boundFormat]] is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in Number Format Functions (11.1.3).
    2. Let bf be BoundFunctionCreate(F, nf, « »).
    3. Perform ! DefinePropertyOrThrow(bf, "length", PropertyDescriptor {[[Value]]: 1, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true}).
    4. Set nf.[[boundFormat]] to bf.
  5. Return nf.[[boundFormat]].

11.4.4Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.resolvedOptions ()#

This function provides access to the locale and formatting options computed during initialization of the object.

The function returns a new object whose properties and attributes are set as if constructed by an object literal assigning to each of the following properties the value of the corresponding internal slot of this NumberFormat object (see 11.5): locale, numberingSystem, style, currency, currencyDisplay, minimumIntegerDigits, minimumFractionDigits, maximumFractionDigits, minimumSignificantDigits, maximumSignificantDigits, and useGrouping. Properties whose corresponding internal slots have the value undefined are not assigned.

11.5Properties of Intl.NumberFormat Instances#

Intl.NumberFormat instances inherit properties from %NumberFormatPrototype%.

Intl.NumberFormat instances and other objects that have been successfully initialized as a NumberFormat have [[initializedIntlObject]] and [[initializedNumberFormat]] internal slots whose values are true.

Objects that have been successfully initialized as a NumberFormat object also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for formatting.
  • [[numberingSystem]] is a String value with the “type” given in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the numbering system used for formatting.
  • [[style]] is one of the String values "decimal", "currency", or "percent", identifying the number format style used.
  • [[currency]] is a String value with the currency code identifying the currency to be used if formatting with the "currency" style. It is only used when [[style]] has the value "currency".
  • [[currencyDisplay]] is one of the String values "code", "symbol", or "name", specifying whether to display the currency as an ISO 4217 alphabetic currency code, a localized currency symbol, or a localized currency name if formatting with the "currency" style. It is only used when [[style]] has the value "currency".
  • [[minimumIntegerDigits]] is a non-negative integer Number value indicating the minimum integer digits to be used. Numbers will be padded with leading zeroes if necessary.
  • [[minimumFractionDigits]] and [[maximumFractionDigits]] are non-negative integer Number values indicating the minimum and maximum fraction digits to be used. Numbers will be rounded or padded with trailing zeroes if necessary.
  • [[minimumSignificantDigits]] and [[maximumSignificantDigits]] are positive integer Number values indicating the minimum and maximum fraction digits to be shown. Either none or both of these properties are present; if they are, they override minimum and maximum integer and fraction digits – the formatter uses however many integer and fraction digits are required to display the specified number of significant digits.
  • [[useGrouping]] is a Boolean value indicating whether a grouping separator should be used.
  • [[positivePattern]] and [[negativePattern]] are String values as described in 11.3.3.

Finally, objects that have been successfully initialized as a NumberFormat have a [[boundFormat]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the format accessor (11.4.3).

12DateTimeFormat Objects#

12.1Abstract Operations For DateTimeFormat Objects#

Several DateTimeFormat algorithms use values from the following table, which provides property names and allowable values for the components of date and time formats:

Table 3: Components of date and time formats
Property Values
weekday "narrow", "short", "long"
era "narrow", "short", "long"
year "2-digit", "numeric"
month "2-digit", "numeric", "narrow", "short", "long"
day "2-digit", "numeric"
hour "2-digit", "numeric"
minute "2-digit", "numeric"
second "2-digit", "numeric"
timeZoneName "short", "long"

12.1.1InitializeDateTimeFormat (dateTimeFormat, locales, options)#

The abstract operation InitializeDateTimeFormat accepts the arguments dateTimeFormat (which must be an object), locales, and options. It initializes dateTimeFormat as a DateTimeFormat object. This abstract operation functions as follows:

  1. If dateTimeFormat.[[initializedIntlObject]] is true, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Set dateTimeFormat.[[initializedIntlObject]] to true.
  3. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  4. Let options be ? ToDateTimeOptions(options, "any", "date").
  5. Let opt be a new Record.
  6. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", "string", « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  7. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  8. Let localeData be the value of %DateTimeFormat%.[[localeData]].
  9. Let r be ResolveLocale( %DateTimeFormat%.[[availableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %DateTimeFormat%.[[relevantExtensionKeys]], localeData).
  10. Set dateTimeFormat.[[locale]] to the value of r.[[locale]].
  11. Set dateTimeFormat.[[calendar]] to the value of r.[[ca]].
  12. Set dateTimeFormat.[[numberingSystem]] to the value of r.[[nu]].
  13. Let dataLocale be the value of r.[[dataLocale]].
  14. Let tz be ? Get(options, "timeZone").
  15. If tz is not undefined, then
    1. Let tz be ? ToString(tz).
    2. If the result of IsValidTimeZoneName(tz) is false, then
      1. Throw a RangeError exception.
    3. Let tz be CanonicalizeTimeZoneName(tz).
  16. Else,
    1. Let tz be DefaultTimeZone().
  17. Set dateTimeFormat.[[timeZone]] to tz.
  18. Let opt be a new Record.
  19. For each row of Table 3, except the header row, do:
    1. Let prop be the name given in the Property column of the row.
    2. Let value be ? GetOption(options, prop, "string", « the strings given in the Values column of the row », undefined).
    3. Set opt.[[<prop>]] to value.
  20. Let dataLocaleData be Get(localeData, dataLocale).
  21. Let formats be Get(dataLocaleData, "formats").
  22. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "formatMatcher", "string", « "basic", "best fit" », "best fit").
  23. If matcher is "basic", then
    1. Let bestFormat be BasicFormatMatcher(opt, formats).
  24. Else,
    1. Let bestFormat be BestFitFormatMatcher(opt, formats).
  25. For each row in Table 3, except the header row, do
    1. Let prop be the name given in the Property column of the row.
    2. Let p be Get(bestFormat, prop).
    3. If p not undefined, then
      1. Set dateTimeFormat.[[<prop>]] to p.
  26. Let hr12 be ? GetOption(options, "hour12", "boolean", undefined, undefined).
  27. If dateTimeFormat has an internal slot [[hour]], then
    1. If hr12 is undefined, then
      1. Let hr12 be Get(dataLocaleData, "hour12").
    2. Set dateTimeFormat.[[hour12]] to hr12.
    3. If hr12 is true, then
      1. Let hourNo0 be Get(dataLocaleData, "hourNo0").
      2. Set dateTimeFormat.[[hourNo0]] to hourNo0.
      3. Let pattern be Get(bestFormat, "pattern12").
    4. Else,
      1. Let pattern be Get(bestFormat, "pattern").
  28. Else,
    1. Let pattern be Get(bestFormat, "pattern").
  29. Set dateTimeFormat.[[pattern]] to pattern.
  30. Set dateTimeFormat.[[boundFormat]] to undefined.
  31. Set dateTimeFormat.[[initializedDateTimeFormat]] to true.
  32. Return dateTimeFormat.

12.1.2ToDateTimeOptions (options, required, defaults)#

When the ToDateTimeOptions abstract operation is called with arguments options, required, and defaults, the following steps are taken:

  1. If options is undefined, let options be null; otherwise let options be ? ToObject(options).
  2. Let options be ObjectCreate(options).
  3. Let needDefaults be true.
  4. If required is "date" or "any",
    1. For each of the property names "weekday", "year", "month", "day":
      1. Let prop be the property name.
      2. Let value be ? Get(options, prop).
      3. If value is not undefined, let needDefaults be false.
  5. If required is "time" or "any",
    1. For each of the property names "hour", "minute", "second":
      1. Let prop be the property name.
      2. Let value be ? Get(options, prop).
      3. If value is not undefined, let needDefaults be false.
  6. If needDefaults is true and defaults is either "date" or "all", then
    1. For each of the property names "year", "month", "day":
      1. Perform ? CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, prop, "numeric").
  7. If needDefaults is true and defaults is either "time" or "all", then
    1. For each of the property names "hour", "minute", "second":
      1. Perform ? CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, prop, "numeric").
  8. Return options.

12.1.3BasicFormatMatcher (options, formats)#

When the BasicFormatMatcher abstract operation is called with two arguments options and formats, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let removalPenalty be 120.
  2. Let additionPenalty be 20.
  3. Let longLessPenalty be 8.
  4. Let longMorePenalty be 6.
  5. Let shortLessPenalty be 6.
  6. Let shortMorePenalty be 3.
  7. Let bestScore be -Infinity.
  8. Let bestFormat be undefined.
  9. Let k be 0.
  10. Assert: formats is an Array object.
  11. Let len be Get(formats, "length").
  12. Repeat while k < len:
    1. Let format be Get(formats, ToString(k)).
    2. Let score be 0.
    3. For each property shown in Table 3:
      1. Let optionsProp be options.[[<property>]].
      2. Let formatProp be Get(format, property).
      3. If optionsProp is undefined and formatProp is not undefined, then decrease score by additionPenalty.
      4. Else if optionsProp is not undefined and formatProp is undefined, then decrease score by removalPenalty.
      5. Else if optionsPropformatProp,
        1. Let values be the array ["2-digit", "numeric", "narrow", "short", "long"].
        2. Let optionsPropIndex be the index of optionsProp within values.
        3. Let formatPropIndex be the index of formatProp within values.
        4. Let delta be max(min(formatPropIndex - optionsPropIndex, 2), -2).
        5. If delta = 2, decrease score by longMorePenalty.
        6. Else if delta = 1, decrease score by shortMorePenalty.
        7. Else if delta = -1, decrease score by shortLessPenalty.
        8. Else if delta = -2, decrease score by longLessPenalty.
    4. If score > bestScore,
      1. Let bestScore be score.
      2. Let bestFormat be format.
    5. Increase k by 1.
  13. Return bestFormat.

12.1.4BestFitFormatMatcher (options, formats)#

When the BestFitFormatMatcher abstract operation is called with two arguments options and formats, it performs implementation dependent steps, which should return a set of component representations that a typical user of the selected locale would perceive as at least as good as the one returned by BasicFormatMatcher.

12.1.5DateTime Format Functions#

When a DateTime format function is called with optional argument date, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dtf be the this value.
  2. Assert: Type(dtf) is Object and dtf has an [[initializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot whose value is true.
  3. If date is not provided or is undefined, then
    1. Let x be Call(%Date_now%, undefined).
  4. Else,
    1. Let x be ? ToNumber(date).
  5. Return FormatDateTime(dtf, x).

The length property of a DateTime format function is 1.

12.1.6FormatDateTime (dateTimeFormat, x)#

When the FormatDateTime abstract operation is called with arguments dateTimeFormat (which must be an object initialized as a DateTimeFormat) and x (which must be a Number value), it returns a String value representing x (interpreted as a time value as specified in ES2016, 20.3.1.1) according to the effective locale and the formatting options of dateTimeFormat. This abstract operation functions as follows:

  1. If x is not a finite Number, throw a RangeError exception.
  2. Let locale be the value of dateTimeFormat.[[locale]].
  3. Let nfLocale be CreateArrayFromListlocale »).
  4. Let nfOptions be ObjectCreate(%ObjectPrototype%).
  5. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nfOptions, "useGrouping", false).
  6. Let nf be ? Construct(%NumberFormat%, « nfLocale, nfOptions »).
  7. Let nf2Options be ObjectCreate(%ObjectPrototype%).
  8. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nf2Options, "minimumIntegerDigits", 2).
  9. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nf2Options, "useGrouping", false).
  10. Let nf2 be ? Construct(%NumberFormat%, « nfLocale, nf2Options »).
  11. Let tm be ToLocalTime(x, dateTimeFormat.[[calendar]], dateTimeFormat.[[timeZone]]).
  12. Let result be the value of the dateTimeFormat.[[pattern]].
  13. For each row of Table 3, except the header row, do:
    1. If dateTimeFormat has an internal slot with the name given in the Property column of the row, then
      1. Let p be the name given in the Property column of the row.
      2. Let f be the value of the [[<p>]] internal slot of dateTimeFormat.
      3. Let v be the value of tm.[[<p>]].
      4. If p is "year" and v ≤ 0, let v be 1 - v.
      5. If p is "month", increase v by 1.
      6. If p is "hour" and the value of dateTimeFormat.[[hour12]] is true, then
        1. Let v be v modulo 12.
        2. If v is equal to the value of tm.[[<p>]], let pm be false; else let pm be true.
        3. If v is 0 and the value of dateTimeFormat.[[hourNo0]] is true, let v be 12.
      7. If f is "numeric", then
        1. Let fv be FormatNumber(nf, v).
      8. Else if f is "2-digit", then
        1. Let fv be FormatNumber(nf2, v).
        2. If the length property of fv is greater than 2, let fv be the substring of fv containing the last two characters.
      9. Else if f is "narrow", "short", or "long", then let fv be a String value representing f in the desired form; the String value depends upon the implementation and the effective locale and calendar of dateTimeFormat. If p is "month", then the String value may also depend on whether dateTimeFormat has a [[day]] internal slot. If p is "timeZoneName", then the String value may also depend on the value of the [[inDST]] field of tm, and if the implementation does not have a localized representation of f, then use f itself.
      10. Replace the substring of result that consists of "{", p, and "}", with fv.
  14. If dateTimeFormat.[[hour12]] is true, then
    1. If pm is true, then
      1. Let fv be an implementation and locale dependent String value representing "post meridiem".
    2. Else,
      1. Let fv be an implementation and locale dependent String value representing "ante meridiem".
    3. Replace the substring of result that consists of "{ampm}", with fv.
  15. Return result.
Note It is recommended that implementations use the locale and calendar dependent strings provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/), and use CLDR "abbreviated" strings for DateTimeFormat "short" strings, and CLDR "wide" strings for DateTimeFormat "long" strings.

12.1.7ToLocalTime (date, calendar, timeZone)#

When the ToLocalTime abstract operation is called with arguments date, calendar, and timeZone, the following steps are taken:

  1. Apply calendrical calculations on date for the given calendar and timeZone to produce weekday, era, year, month, day, hour, minute, second, and inDST values. The calculations should use best available information about the specified calendar and timeZone, including current and historical information about time zone offsets from UTC and daylight saving time rules. If the calendar is "gregory", then the calculations must match the algorithms specified in ES2016, 20.3.1.
  2. Return a Record with fields [[weekday]], [[era]], [[year]], [[month]], [[day]], [[hour]], [[minute]], [[second]], and [[inDST]], each with the corresponding calculated value.
Note It is recommended that implementations use the time zone information of the IANA Time Zone Database.

12.2The Intl.DateTimeFormat Constructor#

The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor is the %DateTimeFormat% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

12.2.1Intl.DateTimeFormat ([ locales [ , options ]])#

When the Intl.DateTimeFormat function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let dateTimeFormat be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%DateTimeFormatPrototype%", « [[initializedIntlObject]], [[initializedDateTimeFormat]], [[locale]], [[calendar]], [[numberingSystem]], [[timeZone]], [[weekday]], [[era]], [[year]], [[month]], [[day]], [[hour]], [[minute]], [[second]], [[timeZoneName]], [[hour12]], [[hourNo0]], [[pattern]], [[boundFormat]] »).
  3. Return ? InitializeDateTimeFormat(dateTimeFormat, locales, options).

12.3Properties of the Intl.DateTimeFormat Constructor#

The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor has the following properties:

12.3.1Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype#

The value of Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype is %DateTimeFormatPrototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

12.3.2Intl.DateTimeFormat.supportedLocalesOf (locales [ , options ])#

When the supportedLocalesOf method of Intl.DateTimeFormat is called, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be the value of %DateTimeFormat%.[[availableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

The value of the length property of the supportedLocalesOf method is 1.

12.3.3Internal slots#

The value of the [[availableLocales]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[relevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is «"ca", "nu"».

Note 1 Unicode Technical Standard 35 describes three locale extension keys that are relevant to date and time formatting, "ca" for calendar, "tz" for time zone, and implicitly "nu" for the numbering system of the number format used for numbers within the date format. DateTimeFormat, however, requires that the time zone is specified through the timeZone property in the options objects.

The value of the [[localeData]] internal slot is implementation defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints:

  • The array that is the value of the "nu" property of any locale property of [[localeData]] must not include the values "native", "traditio", or "finance".
  • [[localeData]][locale] must have hour12 and hourNo0 properties with Boolean values for all locale values.
  • [[localeData]][locale] must have a formats property for all locale values. The value of this property must be an array of objects, each of which has a subset of the properties shown in Table 3, where each property must have one of the values specified for the property in Table 3. Multiple objects in an array may use the same subset of the properties as long as they have different values for the properties. The following subsets must be available for each locale:
    • weekday, year, month, day, hour, minute, second
    • weekday, year, month, day
    • year, month, day
    • year, month
    • month, day
    • hour, minute, second
    • hour, minute
    Each of the objects must also have a pattern property, whose value is a String value that contains for each of the date and time format component properties of the object a substring starting with "{", followed by the name of the property, followed by "}". If the object has an hour property, it must also have a pattern12 property, whose value is a String value that, in addition to the substrings of the pattern property, contains a substring "{ampm}".

EXAMPLE An implementation might include the following object as part of its English locale data: {hour: "numeric", minute: "2-digit", second: "2-digit", pattern: "{hour}:{minute}:{second}", pattern12: "{hour}:{minute}:{second} {ampm}"}.

Note 2 It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at http://cldr.unicode.org/).

12.4Properties of the Intl.DateTimeFormat Prototype Object#

The Intl.DateTimeFormat prototype object is the intrinsic object %DateTimeFormatPrototype%. The Intl.DateTimeFormat prototype object is itself an %DateTimeFormat% instance, whose internal slots are set as if it had been constructed by the expression Construct(%DateTimeFormat%, « », %Object%).

In the following descriptions of functions that are properties or [[Get]] attributes of properties of the Intl.DateTimeFormat prototype object, the phrase "this DateTimeFormat object" refers to the object that is the this value for the invocation of the function; a TypeError exception is thrown if the this value is not an object or an object that does not have an [[initializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot with value true.

12.4.1Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.constructor#

The initial value of Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.constructor is %DateTimeFormat%.

12.4.2Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]#

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the string value "Object".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

12.4.3get Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.format#

Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.format is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let dtf be this value.
  2. If Type(dtf) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. If dtf does not have an [[initializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. If the [[boundFormat]] internal slot of dtf is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in DateTime Format Functions (12.1.5).
    2. Let bf be BoundFunctionCreate(F, dft, « »).
    3. Perform ! DefinePropertyOrThrow(bf, "length", PropertyDescriptor {[[Value]]: 1, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true}).
    4. Set dtf.[[boundFormat]] to bf.
  5. Return dtf.[[boundFormat]].

12.4.4Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.resolvedOptions ()#

This function provides access to the locale and formatting options computed during initialization of the object.

The function returns a new object whose properties and attributes are set as if constructed by an object literal assigning to each of the following properties the value of the corresponding internal slot of this DateTimeFormat object (see 12.5): locale, calendar, numberingSystem, timeZone, hour12, weekday, era, year, month, day, hour, minute, second, and timeZoneName. Properties whose corresponding internal slots have the value undefined are not assigned.

Note In this version of the ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API, the timeZone property will be the name of the default time zone if no timeZone property was provided in the options object provided to the Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor. The first edition left the timeZone property undefined in this case.

12.5Properties of Intl.DateTimeFormat Instances#

Intl.DateTimeFormat instances inherit properties from %DateTimeFormatPrototype%.

Intl.DateTimeFormat instances and other objects that have been successfully initialized as a DateTimeFormat object have [[initializedIntlObject]] and [[initializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slots whose values are true.

Objects that have been successfully initialized as a DateTimeFormat also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for formatting.
  • [[calendar]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the calendar used for formatting.
  • [[numberingSystem]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard 35 for the numbering system used for formatting.
  • [[timeZone]] is a String value with the IANA time zone name of the time zone used for formatting.
  • [[weekday]], [[era]], [[year]], [[month]], [[day]], [[hour]], [[minute]], [[second]], [[timeZoneName]] are each either undefined, indicating that the component is not used for formatting, or one of the String values given in Table 3, indicating how the component should be presented in the formatted output.
  • [[hour12]] is a Boolean value indicating whether 12-hour format (true) or 24-hour format (false) should be used. It is only used when [[hour]] is not undefined.
  • [[hourNo0]] is a Boolean value indicating whether hours from 1 to 12 (true) or from 0 to 11 (false) should be used. It is only used when [[hour12]] has the value true.
  • [[pattern]] is a String value as described in 12.3.3.

Finally, objects that have been successfully initialized as a DateTimeFormat have a [[boundFormat]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the format accessor (12.4.3).

13Locale Sensitive Functions of the ECMAScript Language Specification#

The ECMAScript Language Specification, edition 6 or successor, describes several locale sensitive functions. An ECMAScript implementation that implements this Internationalization API Specification shall implement these functions as described here.

Note The Collator, NumberFormat, or DateTimeFormat objects created in the algorithms in this clause are only used within these algorithms. They are never directly accessed by ECMAScript code and need not actually exist within an implementation.

13.1Properties of the String Prototype Object#

13.1.1String.prototype.localeCompare (that [ , locales [ , options ]])#

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2016, 21.1.3.10.

When the localeCompare method is called with argument that and optional arguments locales, and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let O be RequireObjectCoercible(this value).
  2. Let S be ? ToString(O).
  3. Let That be ? ToString(that).
  4. Let collator be ? Construct(%Collator%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return CompareStrings(collator, S, That).

The value of the length property of the localeCompare method is 1.

Note 1 The localeCompare method itself is not directly suitable as an argument to Array.prototype.sort because the latter requires a function of two arguments. Note 2 The localeCompare function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

13.1.2String.prototype.toLocaleLowerCase ([ locales ])#

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2016, 21.1.3.20.

This function interprets a string value as a sequence of code points, as described in ES2016, 6.1.4. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let O be RequireObjectCoercible(this value).
  2. Let S be ? ToString(O).
  3. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  4. Let len be the number of elements in requestedLocales.
  5. If len > 0, then
    1. Let requestedLocale be the first element of requestedLocales.
  6. Else,
    1. Let requestedLocale be DefaultLocale().
  7. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is requestedLocale with all Unicode locale extension sequences (6.2.1) removed.
  8. Let availableLocales be a List with the language tags of the languages for which the Unicode character database contains language sensitive case mappings.
  9. Let locale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
  10. If locale is undefined, let locale be "und".
  11. Let cpList be a List containing in order the code points of S as defined in ES2016, 6.1.4, starting at the first element of S.
  12. For each code point c in cpList, if the Unicode Character Database provides a lower case equivalent of c that is either language insensitive or for the language locale, replace c in cpList with that/those equivalent code point(s).
  13. Let cuList be a new empty List.
  14. For each code point c in cpList, in order, append to cuList the elements of the UTF-16 Encoding (defined in ES2016, 6.1.4) of c.
  15. Let L be a String whose elements are, in order, the elements of cuList.
  16. Return L.

The result must be derived according to the case mappings in the Unicode character database (this explicitly includes not only the UnicodeData.txt file, but also the SpecialCasings.txt file that accompanies it).

The value of the length property of the toLocaleLowerCase method is 0.

Note 1 As of Unicode 5.1, the availableLocales list contains the elements "az", "lt", and "tr". Note 2 The case mapping of some code points may produce multiple code points. In this case the result String may not be the same length as the source String. Because both toLocaleUpperCase and toLocaleLowerCase have context-sensitive behaviour, the functions are not symmetrical. In other words, s.toLocaleUpperCase().toLocaleLowerCase() is not necessarily equal to s.toLocaleLowerCase(). Note 3 The toLocaleLowerCase function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

13.1.3String.prototype.toLocaleUpperCase ([ locales ])#

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2016, 21.1.3.21.

This function interprets a string value as a sequence of code points, as described in ES2016, 6.1.4. This function behaves in exactly the same way as String.prototype.toLocaleLowerCase, except that characters are mapped to their uppercase equivalents as specified in the Unicode character database.

The value of the length property of the toLocaleUpperCase method is 0.

Note The toLocaleUpperCase function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

13.2Properties of the Number Prototype Object#

The following definition(s) refer to the abstract operation thisNumberValue as defined in ES2016, 20.1.3.

13.2.1Number.prototype.toLocaleString ([ locales [ , options ]])#

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2016, 20.1.3.4.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? thisNumberValue(this value).
  2. Let numberFormat be ? Construct(%NumberFormat%, « locales, options »).
  3. Return FormatNumber(numberFormat, x).

The value of the length property of the toLocaleString method is 0.

13.3Properties of the Date Prototype Object#

The following definition(s) refer to the abstract operation thisTimeValue as defined in ES2016, 20.3.4.

13.3.1Date.prototype.toLocaleString ([ locales [ , options ]])#

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2016, 20.3.4.39.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? thisTimeValue(this value).
  2. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  3. Let options be ? ToDateTimeOptions(options, "any", "all").
  4. Let dateFormat be ? Construct(%DateTimeFormat%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return FormatDateTime(dateFormat, x).

The value of the length property of the toLocaleString method is 0.

13.3.2Date.prototype.toLocaleDateString ([ locales [ , options ]])#

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2016, 20.3.4.38.

When the toLocaleDateString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? thisTimeValue(this value).
  2. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  3. Let options be ? ToDateTimeOptions(options, "date", "date").
  4. Let dateFormat be ? Construct(%DateTimeFormat%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return FormatDateTime(dateFormat, x).

The value of the length property of the toLocaleDateString method is 0.

13.3.3Date.prototype.toLocaleTimeString ([ locales [ , options ]])#

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2016, 20.3.4.40.

When the toLocaleTimeString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? thisTimeValue(this value).
  2. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  3. Let options be ? ToDateTimeOptions(options, "time", "time").
  4. Let timeFormat be ? Construct(%DateTimeFormat%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return FormatDateTime(timeFormat, x).

The value of the length property of the toLocaleTimeString method is 0.

13.4Properties of the Array Prototype Object#

13.4.1Array.prototype.toLocaleString ([ locales [ , options ]])#

This definition supersedes the definition provided in ES2016, 22.1.3.27.

The following steps are taken:

  1. Let A be ? ToObject(this value).
  2. Let len be ? ToLength(? Get(A, "length")).
  3. Let separator be the String value for the list-separator String appropriate for the host environment’s current locale (this is derived in an implementation-defined way).
  4. If len is zero, return the empty String.
  5. Let firstElement be ? Get(A, "0").
  6. If firstElement is undefined or null, then
    1. Let R be an empty String.
  7. Else,
    1. Let R be ? ToString(? Invoke(firstElement, "toLocaleString", « locales, options »)).
  8. Let k be 1.
  9. Repeat, while k < len
    1. Let S be a String value produced by concatenating R and separator.
    2. Let nextElement be ? Get(A, ToString(k)).
    3. If nextElement is undefined or null, then
      1. Let R be the empty String.
    4. Else,
      1. Let R be ? ToString(? Invoke(nextElement, "toLocaleString", « locales, options »)).
    5. Let R be a String value produced by concatenating S and R.
    6. Increase k by 1.
  10. Return R.
Note 1 The elements of the array are converted to Strings using their toLocaleString methods, and these Strings are then concatenated, separated by occurrences of a separator String that has been derived in an implementationdefined locale-specific way. The result of calling this function is intended to be analogous to the result of toString, except that the result of this function is intended to be locale-specific. Note 2 The toLocaleString function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be an Array object. Therefore it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

AImplementation Dependent Behaviour#

The following aspects of the ECMAScript 2016 Internationalization API Specification are implementation dependent:

BAdditions and Changes That Introduce Incompatibilities with Prior Editions#

CCopyright & Software License#

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