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ECMA-262

ECMAScript® 2021 language specification

12th edition, June 2021

This Standard defines the ECMAScript 2021 general-purpose programming language.

Kindly note that the normative copy is the HTML version; the PDF version has been produced to generate a printable document.

This 12th edition has been prepared under the Ecma RF patent policy.

Please note that for ECMAScript Edition 4 the Ecma standard number “ECMA-262 Edition 4” was reserved but not used in the Ecma publication process. Therefore “ECMA-262 Edition 4” as an Ecma International publication does not exist.

The latest drafts are available at: https://tc39.github.io/ecma262/. Reporters should generally only file bugs if the bug is still present in the latest drafts.

Please find hereafter the place to file bugs: https://github.com/tc39/ecma262#ecmascript.

Download this standardView in HTML

Classification

CategorySoftware engineering and interfaces

SubcategoryECMAScript®

Technical CommitteeTC39

Archives

  • ECMA-262, 1st edition, June 1997 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 2nd edition, August 1998 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 3rd edition, December 1999 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 4th edition (not existing)No file available
  • ECMA-262, 5th edition, December 2009 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 5.1th edition, June 2011 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 6th edition, June 2015 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 7th edition, June 2016 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 8th edition, June 2017 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 9th edition, June 2018 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 10th edition, June 2019 - PDF fileDownload
  • ECMA-262, 11th edition, June 2020 - PDF fileDownload