This Ecma Technical Report specifies technical means to handle bi-directional text in character-imaging devices in case of:
- texts in a single script of which specific parts need to be presented in an opposite direction (for example, numbers in Arabic or Hebrew);
- texts in different scripts presented in opposite directions (like Latin and Arabic or Latin and Hebrew);
- texts presented with a horizontal line orientation and a top-to-bottom line progression.
Other presentation directions may be the subject of further studies.
- ECMA TR/53, 1st edition, December 1990Download